IGOS Demonstration Projects
Project Liaison Officers Reports
submitted to the 3rd Meeting of the
Strategic Implementation Team
Paris, 25 March 1998

1. Disaster Management Support
2. Upper Air Measurements
3. Global Observations of Forest Cover
4. Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE)
5. Long-term Continuity of Ozone Measurements
6. Ocean Biology


1. Contribution to IGOS understanding

Disaster Management Support (DMS) was selected as a promising field for demonstrating the added value benefits which IGOS could yield given the scope for mitigating human and economic losses caused by disasters through more effective use of Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. As a means of showing the advantages of an IGOS approach to improved management of disasters the overall objectives of the DMS project are :

- to identify ways to provide improved information services derived from EO satellites and other sources for use by disaster management organisations;
- to facilitate the operational use of such services;
- to facilitate changes in the space segment needed to meet user requirements such as :
- faster data collection/quicker revisit times (involving eg more satellites with requisite capacity or different orbits;
- improved sensors for hazard detection;
- and by those means to stimulate momentum towards the creation of more effective information systems for disaster management support.

On the basis of initial views drawn from 5 extensive meetings throughout 1997, (1 in USA{ originally under WGISS}; 1 in Japan; 1 in India; 2 in Europe) each designed to cover a wide regional geographic spread, participants decided that key steps in pursuing the project should be to :

- focus on selected types and aspects of disaster given the vast scope of the subject;
- establish user information needs within those disaster types;
- establish what satellite data services and products are available to meet such needs;
- identify shortcomings in/obstacles to timely provision of services to meet such needs;
- make recommendations to facilitate improved provision of EO satellite data services, improved access to EO satellite data services and improved ways of presenting such services to users.

2. Contribution to IGOS development and implementation

To pursue DMS objectives utilising an IGOS approach separate teams are being assembled to address each of the selected disaster types. The composition of each so far is :

- Volcanic Ash - led by NOAA and comprising 6 members from USA, Japan and UK
- Earthquakes - led by NASA and comprising 5 members from USA, France, Japan and UK
- Tropical Cyclones - led by NOAA and comprising 7 members from USA, Japan, Germany and UK
- Fire - led by EC and comprising 16 members from EC, USA, France, Germany, Japan, UK and Canada
- Drought - co-led by ISRO and WCRP and comprising 11 members from India, WCRP, France, Japan, UK, USA and Australia
- Oil Spills - led by ESA and comprising 7 members from ESA, Canada, Japan, UK and USA
- Floods - co-led by EC and ENEA and comprising 14 members from EC, Italy, Canada, France, Japan, UK, USA and Germany

The teams will progressively review existing documentation and current management practices for handling their disaster types, compile user requirements, identify shortcomings/gaps in provision of required information services and make recommendations for rectifying the latter.

In parallel with the work of the teams, NOAA in 1997 began development of a prototype information server to provide "one stop shopping " for locating and acquiring EO satellite data. The server already supports a number of links to sites around the world following recommendations from a number of CEOS and user organisations.

3. DMS Deliverables

The teams are engaged in the initial review phase which will lead to formulation of user requirements in preparation for, and during a DMS workshop which will take place at NOAA in Washington DC from 30 March-3 April, constituting the first project milestone of 1998. The desired output will be a preliminary assessment of current practice, an initial set of user requirements and, where appropriate, recommendations for meeting requirements. These will need to be refined, expanded and iterated over a period of hopefully 6 months to 1 year, depending upon the maturity of the area in terms of experience in using EO satellite data. Provided that CEOS agencies actively support making data more readily available readily available in usable form for such purposes, the aim over the next 2-3 years will be to monitor closely numerous demonstration and prototype operational activities to develop a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of current EO satellite systems and supporting information delivery systems for disaster management applications. This will lead to a better understanding of the requirements which can be provided to EO satellite operators and information systems providers. In the longer term the teams will consider the potential of planned EO satellite data services to satisfy user requirements for management of their disaster types, identify gaps in the provision of planned services and make recommendations on how planned services might be tailored so as to avoid such gaps.

NOAA set up the prototype information server in the second half of 1997 and recruited contractor support for its development early in 1998. Active contributions to server development have been made thus far by CSA, DLR, NASA and the US Geological Survey (USGS). Further inputs on ideas for development approach ( eg server search structure, access to on-line data and/or information from non-NOAA sources) are now sought to keep development of the server in step with the work of the teams.

4. Inter-Project coordination

Common interests have already been established between the Fire team , much of whose work is concerned with forest fires, and the IGOS project on Global Observation of Forest Cover. Contacts between respective project leaders have been made and will be maintained. As the work of the other teams gets under way, further opportunities for collaboration with other IGOS projects may arise.

5. Key Project Requirements

The teams on selected disaster types have only recently been assembled and are still in the process of organising their work. Key requirements will begin to emerge once the teams complete the review phase and begin to assess user needs.

6. Liaison with WGISS and WGCV

Close contact with WGISS has been maintained from the outset and the WGISS Hazards Response Team was folded into the DMS project last year. The WGISS liaison contact for the DMS project is also the Project Liaison Officer for the DMS project within SIT and he will attend meetings on 23 and 24 March 1998 arranged at the EC's Joint research Centre, Ispra to explore the scope for further liaison between WGISS/WGCV and IGOS projects.

7. Liaison with related organisations

Organisations concerned with emergency management which are already involved in the DMS project include UN IDNDR, WMO/WCRP, Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, the EC DG XI Civil Protection Unit, the Council of Europe,and the US Sub-committee on Natural Disaster Reduction. Other organisations may become involved as the work of the teams progresses.

2 Report on the Upper Air Measurements Project
Project led by Paul Menzel and Don Hinsman

Report prepared by Dr D Williams for SIT meeting in March 1998

1. Background

Reduction of radiosonde and omega sonde observations of the upper atmosphere has raised concerns about possible degradation in weather forecasting. NOAA, in cooperation with the WMO and in the framework of the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), is leading the Upper Air (UA) Measurements Project. The objective is to assess the impact of the sonde reduction on numerical weather prediction models, to explore near term mitigation with satellite data, to evaluate satellite capabilities for satisfying NWP user requirements, and to plan for future space-based upper air measurements. In 1997 the IGOS UA Project enlisted global modellers to conduct sonde denial studies and initiated enhanced use of satellite remote sensing data.

Initial studies have revealed that loss of radiosonde observations (raobs) over the land surfaces will have a negative impact on global forecasts. However, in these impact studies, satellite-sounding data over land have not been utilised. A preliminary study using sounder total precipitable water vapour and cloud heights over the land reduced the negative impact of raob denial appreciably. The Upper Air Project thus recommend that the global weather prediction centres collaborate with satellite data providers to assess in more detail the impact of the removal of designated ground based upper air observations as well as inclusion of satellite observations over land.

It was noted by the Upper Air Project that there is a need to perform observing system simulation experiments to understand the possible impact of future observing systems and identify the best composite observing systems (satellite, ground, and other) and strategies (e.g., adaptive observations).

2. Contribution to understanding the benefits of IGOS

The project has illustrated the need to assess the balance between satellite and surfaced based observations in an integrated way. There is a need to trade-off the benefits of both classes of measurements and this is not simple, particularly where the output is from a composite analysis e.g. assimilation. A key factor in assessing the specific contribution of each class of measurement can be the use of historical data to rerun analysis with specific data sets denied or included. The project also illustrated how the actual measurements can fall short of the optimum requirements but at the same time still is of significant value in the analysis. The project was also able to differentiate between short term and long term actions to improve the analysis.

3. Contribution to the Implementation of IGOS

Short term: The project identified that the space agencies and scientists could improve the use and value of existing satellite data by improving the retrieval of winds over the land surface. It also noted the potential of GOES to provide sounding data.

The loss of raobs will have a significant effect on the weather forecasts at the 1-4 day and 5-8 day level. Every effort should be made to maintain raob deployment and use aircraft ascent and descent data from new systems.

Long term: There is a need to improve the satellite measurements particularly of winds and sounding data. Despite their current value these are still well below the optimum level needed by modellers for better forecasting. The use of wind Lidars and geostationary soundings are two key areas identified.

4. Advice on Inter Project Cooperation

No obvious links were noted. This project is very close to meteorology and the major interactions are with this field.

5. Key requirements for space based observation

These are as set out in the data base and as expanded in section 3 above.

6. Liaison with WGISS and WGCV

There has been no direct interaction. This is linked to the reason given under point 4 above.

7. Other issues

In this study the clear link between the "users" setting requirements and the suppliers is well laid out. The WMO CBS working group on satellites has defined a set of needs that has a general institutional support. Translating these to satellite or in situ measurements is undertaken by groups bringing together the suppliers and science users. Thus data that is below optimum is valued and can be utilised. In other projects this close set of interactions is not as obvious. There could be a case for the GOSSP to take on the parallel role to CBS working group on satellites for the wider climate and environment needs as anticipated in IGOS. This would give a more formalised structure to the interactions and provide a mechanism for gaining institutional support from the sponsors of programmes.

3Global Observations of Forest Cover

Liaison Report to SIT Meeting, Paris, 25 March 1998

1. Contribution of project to understanding of advantages and benefits of an IGOS

The GOFC Project contributes to the above in a number of ways:

1) by providing detailed, concrete understanding of and documentation on information needs of four categories of users which can be met, at least in part, through co-ordinated and integrated global observations of forest cover.

The four categories of users are:

- International organizations (FAO, UNEP) The FAO is a key partner, both in terms of its own information requirements for its Forest Resource Assessments, and through its national liason and international capacity building activities.
- National and regional forest agencies
- Science community (as represented by IGBP, for example)
- International treaties and conventions (e.g. Biodiversity convention, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management).

2) by developing and implementing an organisational infrastructure to secure co-ordinated and integrated global observations of forest cover using CEOS members' space assets;

3) by creating global data sets (microwave and optical data, and derived products) which can be used by a wide spectrum of users for their information needs, thus demonstrating the power of an IGOS; the four categories of users described above range from the research to operational communities, and from private to public sector users;

4) by identifying gaps and overlaps in planned missions of CEOS member agencies.

2. Contribution of the project ot the development and implementation of an IGOS

2.1 - shorter term (2-3 year) deliverables

The most important short term deliverable, from GOFC, will be the detailed design document. This will provide CEOS members with an overview of what is necessary to achieve GOFC as part on an IGOS. It will also provide an authoritative compilation of user requirements. There are in addition a number of methodological and institutional aspects which have a wider relevance and interest within an IGOS. GOFC objectives will be achieved through the voluntary participation of interested organisations worldwide. Of particular interest will be the communications network which will enable such an organisation to function. Other components of interest will be an institutional arrangement to co-ordinate the data acquisition plans for data from the sensors which will be needed for GOFC, a means to calibrate and pre-process the data into an integrated common data set, a means to produce derived products from earth observation data, and a means to provide user access to these products.

Derived products which are likely to be available within 2 - 3 years are a validated coarse resolution land cover classification (already achieved through the IGBP 1km land cover classification project, which will become part of the GOFC network), and a global fire product, which has already been specified by IGBP.

Ongoing liaison with all classes of users will provide a means for CEOS members to ensure that their programs respond to real-world requirements for forest management information at global, continental, and national scales.

2.2 - longer term (5-10 year) deliverables.

On the five to ten year time scale we should have a fully functioning system to acquire, archive, and process fine resolution data (25 - 100 m resolution) from optical and microwave (L- and C-band) satellites using a co-ordinated data acquisition strategy to provide global coverage on a 5 to 10 year cycle, and yearly coverage of areas of rapid change. Derived products will include coarse resolution land cover for the whole world, fine resolution land cover for forested regions of greatest interest, fine resolution maps of forest harvest and land cover change in areas of rapid change, and coarse resolution indicators of forest functioning (leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) with a time resolution of approximately 10 days.

2.3 - General considerations

One aspect of the project which has wider interest is the concept of "data bundles". The project attempts to enhance the use of derived products for particular user communities by providing them as part of a data bundle. One example is the bundle proposed for emission inventories

Targeted CEOS Data Bundle
Bundle Name: Emission Inventory
User: Framework Convention on Climate Change, IPCC, IGBP

Data set
Horiz. Res. 
L.C. 1 
L.C. 2           
  Input Data Sources from Archive
Input Data Source/Sensor  Sp. Resolution  Temp. Res.  etc 
deforestation, decadal Spot, TM, IRS  10-50 m  5 yr  .... 
deforestation, annual spot, TM, JERS  10-50 m  1 yr   
logging JERS, Radarsat  10 - 30 m  5 yr   
  The use of multi-source (private/public sector) data for this project is also an issue for more general consideration, given the different conditions under which these data are made available. The need to combine radar and optical data means that a well-conceived data acquisition strategy is also an important consideration.

The project also has a possible role to play in the promotion of Earth observation: the nature of the data sets is likely to make them easily accessible to public understanding.

3. Inter-Project coordination and requirements for access to baseline data sets in support of broad IGOS objectives.

Previous contacts with the other IGOS projects, primarily through the Analysis Group, suggests relatively few cross-cutting issues. The one which has been recognised is a common interest by both GOFC and the Disaster Management Support project in forest fires, and effective communication between these two projects has been established. One particular aspect which these two projects have in common is the need for access to data from a range of sources, including government-funded research missions, meteorological satellite series and private sector missions such as SPOT and Radarsat for the provision of high-resolution optical and radar imagery.

Forest cover is of interest to climatologists from the point of view of the earth radiation budget, the hydrological cycle, greenhouse gases, and the fricitional dissipation of wind kinetic energy. However, these issues are not central to any of the other IGOS pilot projects.

4. Key project requirements from space based observations.

There is a need for continuous observations of the Earth's forests at coarse (250 - 1000 m) and fine (25 - 100 m) resolution by optical and microwave satellites. Wavebands of interest include the visible, near infrared, and shortwave infrared at optical wavelengths, and 5 cm (C-band) and 20 cm (L-band) at microwave wavelengths. Longer microwave wavelengths are of interest from the point of view of forest biomass, as is the planned NASA vegetation canopy lidar mission. However, much can be done with existing and planned sensors such as TM, HRV, AVHRR, MODIS, MERIS, Vegetation, and the SARs on ERS, RADARSAT, and JERS-1. The optical sensors on the Indian IRS satellites, the China-Brazil CBERS satellite, and the Russian RESURS satellite provide data with useful characteristics, but it is unclear at present how much data the space agencies responsible for those sensors will wish to contribute.

The project has identified a likely gap in L-band SAR data which will arise between the NASDA JERS-1 and ALOS missions, but it is not possible to fill this gap because of the costs and lead times involved.

Over the longer time, we hope that GOFC will help reduce a seeming surplus of optical sensors and ensure continuity of SAR data at both L and C bands.

5. Degree of input/liaison with WGISS and WGCV.

GOFC is making full use of the capabilities and expertise of both WGISS and WGCV.

Peter Churchill and Martha Maiden are GOFC design team co-chairs and key WGISS members. They will likely draw on additional WGISS members in populating their design teams. Likewise, Alan Belward, current chair of WGCV is also a co-chair of GOFC. CCRS will contribute the expertise of Terry Fisher, who is active in WGISS, and Phil Teillet, who is active in WGCV, to the GOFC effort.

6. Links to other advisory mechanisms

GOFC maintains contact with GCOS and GTOS through TOPC, the Terrestrial Observantion Panel on Climate, which is chaired by Josef Cihlar of CCRS. TOPC will be meeting in Corvalis, Oregon in May, at which time Dr. Cihlar will be able to provide a briefing on GOFC and discuss issues of common concern. We also maintain direct contact with GTOS through Jeff Tschirley. GOFC has an obvious interest in GTOS, as we share many areas of common concern. Anything SIT can do to further the development of GTOS will be helpful to GOFC.

GOFC has a stated objective of resulting in a self-sustaining program of on-going observations of forests and production of derived products by the end of its five year lifetime. It is unlikely that the space agency members of CEOS will want to subsidise such a program indefinately. Any help SIT can provide in identifying possible sources of on-going funding will be most helpful.

A new proposal for a Forest information system based on remote sensing (FAME) is being developed by the Netherlands. We are interested in keeping in contact with this development. One point of contact is Jelle Hilelkema, who works with Jeff Tschirley at the FAO.

4GODAE: Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment

Prepared by J.L. Fellous
SIT Project Liaison Officer for GODAE

The present report is based on information gathered from N. Smith, GODAE Interim Director, and P. Courtier, SIT/GODAE Project Leader, and J.C. André, MERCATOR Executive Secretary. It is structured according to the generic headings proposed by SIT Chair.

1. How is the project contributing to an understanding of the advantages and benefits of an IGOS?

To my view GODAE is the best example of a truly representative, "full-size" integrated observing system, incorporating altogether space-based observations, in situ observations, and data assimilation techniques, associating altogether space agencies and non-space international organizations, and benefiting from large international collaboration world-wide.

Compared to other IGOS projects GODAE offers an opportunity to test all aspects of the advantages and benefits of an IGOS, in a pre-operational manner.

2. How is the project contributing to the development and implementation of an IGOS:

- shorter term (2-3 year) deliverables
- longer term (5-10 year) deliverables.

The need for both short- (2-3 years) and long- (5-10) term deliverables has been recognized from the outset of GODAE. Interpreting the "experiment" part as activity in 2003-2005 with no work beforehand would obviously be a misunderstanding. The 1st GODAE Workshop held in July 1997 in Fort-de-France made good progress in defining the nature of pilot projects. The 1st GODAE Science Steering Team meeting took place in Melbourne on 20-22 January, 1998, where further progress was made. Two lines of development of GODAE have been defined:

- in the short-term, both high-resolution, basin-scale projects and low-resolution, global scale project are undertaken;

- in the long-term, the full scale, high-resolution, global ocean project will be developed.

This latter part of the overall GODAE project is critically dependent on the successful achievement of the short-term part of it.

In fact, the most challenging part of the work is in the period leading up to 2003. The strategy has been to identify a range of activities in different aspects of GODAE, with lifetimes order 2-5 years, which have short-term deliverables that can be used to encourage and give confidence to the investors in the GODAE project.

For example, the project would like to use the North Atlantic as a regional demonstration, taking advantage that:

- the in situ sampling for the North Atlantic will be very strong over the next 2-3 years because of several large subsurface float deployments;

- several operating and experimental data assimilation models for the North Atlantic are also available;

- altimetry and other remotely sensed data sets are also there.

Similar exercises could be undertaken for the North Pacific, using some of the CLIVAR activities there, and a high-level of Japanese interest, to get it going.

All of these projects, and others, will deliver short-term products. For GODAE, and for the OOPC and GOOS/GCOS, they are critical links in the foundations of a future permanent, integrated global ocean observing system.

As stated by Dr. N. Smith, the GODAE Project Scientist:

"I cannot and should not deny that GODAE is being driven by objectives and interests which are long-term, with the experimental period 2003-2005 being seen as the point for realization and consummation of the integrated system. I hope CEOS also sees value in these long-term goals. However we also recognize that the path to this goal will not be "granted", and that we will have to progress through a series of demonstrations and reinvestment, a process which is I think compatible with the aims of CEOS and its IGOS. I hope also that we agree that an IGOS cannot be realized, or consummated, through one-off or quick, but limited demonstrations. Faith in the strategy will come through solid, scientifically sound experimentation, where the unity and value of integration is clear and tangible. For 'events' on the scale of climate, or even ocean 'weather', such confidence requires patience and a long-term strategy, as well as innovative and appealing short-term outcomes."

3. Advice on opportunities for inter-Project coordination and on requirements for access to baseline data sets in support of broad IGOS objectives.

In its initial phase GODAE is essentially a physical oceanography project, mostly concerned with assimilation of ocean circulation data. Links with other projects, particularly ocean biology, will certainly develop as techniques for assimilation of ocean color data evolve from the current research mode to a pre-operational mode. It is important however to maintain an open exchange of information between the projects.

4. Key project requirements from space based observations.

Key space-based data for GODAE have well been described. Continuous, near real-time provision of ocean topography, surface wind field, sea surface temperature, and sea ice boundary data from space-borne sensors is a basic requirement. Additional data, e.g., salinity, would be helpful as they become accessible to satellite measurement. Major issues with respect to availability of satellite observations are:

- the continuity of the high accuracy altimeter data series (i.e., JASON-2) and of a second altimeter for meso-scale dynamics

- the provision of a high accuracy geoid

Additionally, the issue of low cost transmission of in situ data is being raised.

5. Degree of input/liaison with WGISS and WGCV.

No strong interaction with WGISS and WGCV is taking place, though best account is taken of the WG recommendations, insofar as they are relevant for GODAE. This question requires further investigation. WGISS and WGCV might be asked to review GODAE status from their own perspective.

6. Advice on any other aspects you consider relevant to project development in the CEOS SIT context, e.g., opportunities for liaison with GOSSP or other advisory mechanisms.

As mentioned in the report to 2nd SIT meeting in Oxford there is a need for a continuing support from the space agencies to GODAE project management and coordination. A modest funding is being supplied by a number of agencies (CNES, NASA, NOAA, EUMETSAT, ESA, NASDA) to provide secretarial support and meeting and travel funds to the project.


1. How is the project contributing to an understanding of the advantages and benefits of an IGOS.

The Ozone Project is focused on the need for monitoring of the total ozone column amounts and vertical profiles of ozone, along with the key geophysical parameters needed for understanding and interpreting the ozone measurements. The project recognizes that systematic data from both ground-based and balloon-based systems, as well as observations from instruments flown on satellites, must be exploited, as must process-oriented data obtained from research aircraft, balloons, and satellites. This approach results in an expanded effort which encompasses a large scientific community and is taking considerable time and effort. In particular, the attribution of observed changes in ozone to natural and/or anthropogenic effects requires that a fairly broad suite of related parameters (e.g. temperature, aerosols, other trace constituents, solar forcing) be known over a period of time comparable to that of ozone measurements. There is a clear recognition that the space- and ground/balloon-based components are not separated, especially given the key role that the latter play in the validation of the space-based measurements. In order to understand limitations and opportunities of the current systems, the project has begun the process to identify common requirements, and measurement gaps and deficiencies.

2. How is the project contributing to the development and implementation of an IGOS.

- shorter term (2-3 year) deliverables
- longer term (5-10 year) deliverables.

The group's planning initiated at the CEOS Analysis group meetings in Tokyo in July 1997 and continued in support of the meeting in Silver Spring, MD in September 1997 has continued with plans for the development of a consensus document. In the near-term, the project's key focus will be the completion of the draft of its long-term plan for ozone measurements (The Report of The Ozone IGOS Project). This draft report will be the focus of discussion at a workshop planned for mid-year 1998 to consolidate the drafting of initial sections and the contents of the rest of the report, including the recommendations. A full draft of the report is then planned to be available in the latter part of 1998. The set of recommendations and conclusions from the finalized report will form the basis for agreement on specific implementation plans for effecting greater cooperation and coordination of the available and planned ground, air and spaceborne measurement assets.

3. Opportunities for inter-Project coordination.

The Upper Air Measurements IGOS Project - The requirements for meteorological parameters defined by the Upper Air Project also meet the need of the Ozone Project with the notable exception of tropopause height and water vapor, where the Ozone Project's requirements are significantly more stringent. In particular, the Upper Air Group's strong focus on data needs for weather forecasting have led it to develop requirements for tropopause-level information that are inadequate for use in quantitative studies of atmospheric chemistry. For example, the water vapor requirements (defined as specific humidity) are such that where water vapor concentrations are low (can get down to some 2.5 ppmv near the tropopause), very large uncertainty would be allowed; observations made to this accuracy/precision would be essentially useless for studies in which constraints on water vapor were needed. Similarly, the realization that any changes in tropopause height can be expected to significantly contribute to changes in total column ozone means that tropopause heights must be better known than required for operational meteorological forecasting purposes (indeed, it has been suggested that a significant fraction of the trend in northern mid-latitude ozone column amounts could be related to some long-term dynamical variations in the parameters of the tropopause in those regions).

The Disaster Management Support IGOS Project - There may be the potential for data products including volcanic ash aerosols, sulfur dioxide density, and ozone maps of upper air trough structure which could facilitate the study of volcanic hazards and aircraft routing efficiency improvements. Several of the satellite measurement techniques used for ozone measurements make sulfur dioxide and volcanic ash observations concurrent with the ozone measurements, and these data are made available to the hazard community. The use of satellite-obtained ozone measurements for use in aviation-related weather forecasting is one for which appreciable theoretical work will need to be undertaken to obtain information on its potential.

4. Key project requirements from space based observations.

As mentioned previously, the Ozone Project recognizes that data from both ground-based and balloon-based systems, as well as observations from instruments flown on satellites, must be exploited. The Project reviewed the "User's Requirements Data Base" established by WMO at the IGOS AG Workshop as well as the report of the ad-Hoc GCOS Atmospheric Panel Chemistry meeting (Toronto, May 23, 1997) with special focus on their relevance to the Ozone Project. A revised set of requirements is being prepared by the project as part of its report. The identification of requirements for the additional parameters beyond total column ozone and ozone profile, as well as the selection of additional constituents for which requirements will be defined, constitute a key element of the project's activities. These requirements will be provided in the "The Report of The Ozone IGOS Project".

5. Degree of input/liaison with WGISS and WGCV.

- CEOS Working Group on Information Systems and Services (WGISS) - limited contact to this point. In general, there is the sense that there are no significant issues on exchange and availability of ozone data that cannot be met through existing organizations and linkages. Data from key satellite systems, such as TOMS, SAGE, SBUV, UARS, and GOME are all readily available, and most ground-based and ozonesonde data can be obtained from the World Ozone Data Center in Toronto.

- CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation (WGCV) -Within the WGCV four sub-Groups, seven pilot projects have been identified but do not yet include total ozone column amounts and ozone profiles. At the IGOS AG Workshop in Tokyo, it was felt that there is need for an additional activity within the CEOS-WGCV supporting the major ozone measurement programs. Since many of these (esp. TOMS, SBUV, GOME) make use of ultraviolet wavelengths, the first order need is for some inclusion of UV techniques into the set of those explicitly considered by WGCV. The Ozone Project will be participating in the March 1998 meeting hosted by the EC.

PLO report on IGOS Ocean Biology

PLO: Takashi Moriyama ( NASDA/EOPD)
(IGOS/SIT meeting, March 1998, Paris)

1. Project Status

IOCCG meeting took place at the Capetown, South Africa during Jan. 19 to 21, 1998.

Among the discussions, it is noteworthy concerning the IGOS/SIT activity, liaison between CEOS and IOCCG have discussed. (mentioned below)

2. Liaison Between CEOS and IOCCG

The chairman briefed the committee on the latest activities of CEOS in relation to ocean color issues. One of the recent initiatives of CEOS was the establishment of the Stretegic Implementation Team(SIT) to examine the long term applications of ocean color data. The SIT was also instrumental in developing and executing the Integral Global Observing Strategy(IGOS) using six demonstration projects that reflect and incorporate the principals of an IGOS. One of these projects was the Long Term Ocean Biology Measurements, which was handed over to the IOCCG to implement since its aims were entirely met by the activities of the IOCCG. The outcome of these projects would be discussed at the SIT meeting in Paris, March, 1998.

The committee considered the problem of data merging at a global scale. It was recognized that the IOCCG should take responsibility for ensuring a long term data series and that there was some liaison with CEOS regarding this issue. The committee acknowledged that the IOCCG did not have the resources to produce a large,merge data set but that it could implement a strategy to achieve this. The IOCCG could make recommendations to CEOS promoting the idea of data merging, which would help funding agencies allocate theis funds. It was proposed that a small working group be formed to document recommendations to CEOS and to request funding from the Space Agencies. The committee decided to wait until after the March SIT meeting to see how to proceed on these issues.

3. Cross Cutting Issues to be Discussed

(1) Requirements for CAL/VAL
(2) Information management strategies
(3) Baseline data sets
(4) Technical and data requirements analysis
(5) Opportunities to work with other groups, eg. CGMS,GOSSP

In addition to these subjects, IOCCG is planning hold user training/seminor every year, to promote ocean data utilization especially for developing countries in tropical region.

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