7. THE VALLEY OF VISIONS OF THE FUTURE

 

 

As you enter the seventh valley, the valley of Visions of the Future, you are approaching a high point from which your view can leave the chaos of the present behind and stretch out towards the future. You should now be equipped with a clearer understanding of where you have come from, and why the world is in the mess it is in today. It is hard to be motivated when you are lost, wandering in a wilderness with no idea about how to get out of it. Something needs to give you a sense of direction, to keep you from just going in circles. Ideally you would want a map and a compass, or a GPS, to show you where to go and to keep you headed in the right direction. And you also need a destination, the place you want to reach. It is the same with life. People who have a clear vision of the world they want to build or the society they would like to live in are more effective in using their talents constructively for a positive end.

You should now know yourself better, even if discovering your true self is a lifelong process. You will hopefully have a clearer sense of your human purpose, why you are here and what things you can do to refine your character and to achieve the real satisfaction that comes from being of service to others.

The challenge of this valley is to decide what you will now do with all these things that you have acquired. And for that you need to know yourself, your talents and interests, or at least be open to discovering them, even if this means taking risks and accepting mistakes as a normal part of the learning process. Then you need to construct your vision of where you want to go. This valley is surrounded by many peaks, representing innumerable possibilities about the future. Reaching a summit will be the journey of a lifetime, but which summit? How can you chose, and then find your way?

Of course, the future is unpredictable and there will be many surprises in your path, from events in the world and from your own encounters and discoveries. Destinations frequently evolve or change entirely as new possibilities emerge. Christopher Columbus set out for one world and discovered another, and you may well find the same happens to you. This does not really matter if your direction of travel is set by your values. They will bring a coherence to your life. If your goal, for example, is to use your talents to be of service to others or to society, many different paths can be equally rewarding.

We saw in the third valley the role of social cohesion in the rise and fall of civilizations. The wealth of a growing population and improving technology produces a successful elite, until excess population allows increased exploitation of labour and an overshoot of natural resource limits, in which the poor suffer and the elite continue to live well. A generation later the excessive concentration of wealth leads to conflict among a too numerous young elite over a shrinking resource base, and the civilization loses cohesion and collapses.119 The same process is happening today with educated youth who hoped for a better world that they do not see coming, or who no longer have access to the success and comfort of their parent's generation. With other ways blocked, they are being pushed towards revolution, risking factionalism and anarchy which has been predicted to lead to political instability and impending crises in Western Europe and the USA by 2020. The only way to avoid this would be to reduce social inequality.120

Movements of frustrated youth around the world, and their attraction to antiestablishment factions, suggest that such pressures are building, and the possibility of a widespread youth rebellion cannot be excluded. The main problem is that, while many youth know what they want to tear down, they lack a clear idea of what to put in its place. Revolution that leads to anarchy and dictatorship is counterproductive. Rather than wasting your time and risking your life to tear down the present system, why not start building the new one that must take its place?

This seventh valley has a dense forest of good intentions in which it is only too easy to get lost. A life of good intentions without real action that ultimately leads nowhere is not very satisfying, and may do little to fulfil yourself or to advance civilization. At the same time, there is no single path out of this valley, but as many paths as there are human beings. Each of us is different, with a unique combination of qualities and potentials, and also weaknesses to overcome. You have to set your own direction and make your own path. If you have a clear vision of your goal, or at least your direction of travel, your path will be straight; if you are unsure, your way will certainly be crooked, take much longer, and not go so far.

This also means that there is not one single vision of the future that everyone can simply adopt. Yes, you may agree in general terms that a world of peace and justice is desirable, but every individual must find their own specific vision of their place in building that future. There is not one single mountain ahead that will take you up out of this valley, but a whole mountain range with many peaks and ridges, lakes and meadows, and passes from one summit to the next, where you can search for the life path that suits you best. In this valley you can discover some of the options, which you can mix and match to find the vision of the future that fits you and satisfies your specific needs and longings. The lessons learned throughout your journey will be the best provisions for your life ahead, to give it the best chance of being long and satisfying.

 

 

Taking charge of your own life

Do not think that you are powerless because you are young, inexperienced, without material means or access to power. You are also the future. Every great tree starts as an insignificant seedling, easily bent in the slightest breeze. You know that to flourish, you need to reach towards the light. For a tree, it is sunlight that makes growth possible. For you, it is the spiritual light of guidance, the warm love that you receive if you turn your own love outwards. The world is full of dangers, distractions and traps to be avoided, like the storms that can break branches and even uproot the tree. Building a strong trunk of good qualities, and sheltering branches able to carry good fruits, can protect you against the tempests of life.


 

 

The dangers to be avoided

There are three dangerous passes in this valley, where a slip and fall can send you tumbling back into the valleys below. The world is assailed by an array of destructive forces which can sweep you away in the deepening confusion of your generation, producing a sense of hopelessness when you should be driving progress.

The first is materialism, rooted in the West, that has now spread to every corner of the planet. In the name of a strong global economy and human welfare, it markets a vain and foolish worldview founded in a culture of consumerism. It skilfully and ingeniously promotes a habit of consumption that seeks to satisfy the basest and most selfish desires, while encouraging the expenditure of wealth so as to prolong and exacerbate social conflict.121 As you saw in the previous valleys, the consumer society is raping the earth, destroying nature, and flaunting a material success for the few that is out of reach of the masses of the poor. Conflict is the inevitable result. You are living in an age consumed by self-interest, in which even spiritual matters are weighed in the scales of reward and personal satisfaction. You are the target of this aggressive materialism intent on making you passive consumers addicted to its fads and products.

The second danger is the rising tide of fundamentalism, bringing with it an exceedingly narrow understanding of religion and spirituality. It continues to gather strength, threatening to engulf humanity in rigid dogmatism. In its most extreme form, it conditions the resolution of the problems of the world upon the occurrence of events derived from illogical and superstitious notions. It professes to uphold virtue yet, in practice, perpetuates oppression and greed. Fundamentalism leads to a myriad social problems, to intolerence and division, and even to violence, conflict and terrorism.122

You are also surrounded by the indecencies, the vices, the false standards, which today's inherently deficient moral code tolerates, perpetuates, and fosters everywhere. The forces at work on your heart and mind are pernicious indeed. Exhortations to remain pure and chaste are not sufficient. Your minds are affected by the choices your parents made for their own lives, when, no matter how unintentionally, no matter how innocently, such choices condone the passions of the world: its admiration for power, its adoration of status, its love of luxuries, its attachment to frivolous pursuits, its glorification of violence, and its obsession with self-gratification. You must realize that the isolation and despair from which you and your friends suffer are products of an environment ruled by an all-pervasive materialism. Your challenge is to replace this present-day order. This is the last mountain you have to climb, armed with all the qualities you have acquired before.123


 

 

The power of a positive vision

Those of you who are still in your youth should recognize that you will inevitably inherit the future. Today's young people will be tomorrow's leaders. Youth are typically in the vanguard of change. From the mid-teens through the twenties, most of you are not yet encumbered by a fixed career path or family responsibilities. You have an energy and mobility that gives you an exceptional potential for selfless service. You can lead the future progress of society and the expansion of new and better ways of living. You can easily recruit other youth to join you in meaningful acts of service and community-building. You are eager to take on a measure of responsibility to aid the spiritual and social development of those around you, especially ones younger than yourselves. You can resist the temptation of self-interest, material reward and personal satisfaction, and adopt a new positive vision of the future, putting the needs of others before your own. Through the example of your own efforts, you can contribute momentum to the whole community.124

Every generation has an opportunity to make a contribution to the fortunes of humanity, unique to their time of life. For you, the moment has come to reflect, to commit, to steel yourselves for a life of service. Rising above a distracted and bewildered humanity, you can adopt a clear vision of the possible future, and demonstrate an integrity and uprightness that are not undermined by dwelling on the faults of others, without being immobilized by your own shortcomings. You can bring those who have been excluded into the circle of your intimate friends. Your consciousness of the failings of society can impel you to work for its transformation, not to distance yourselves from it. Your motivation can be so strong that, whatever the cost, you will refuse to pass by inequity in its many forms and will work, instead, for justice for all of humanity.125

For this to happen, you need a fundamental shift in perspective, explored through all the valleys on this journey, that changes the way in which you view certain essential concepts -- the true purpose of life, the nature of progress, the meaning of true happiness and well-being, and the place that material pursuits should assume in your individual and family life.

In this new perspective, you should be convinced of the nobility of human beings; eagerly seeking a deeper understanding of the true purpose of existence; able to distinguish between truth and superstition; clear in the view of science and religion as two independent yet complementary systems of knowledge that propel human progress; conscious of and drawn to the beauty and power of unity in diversity; secure in the knowledge that real happiness is to be found in service to your community and nation and to the peoples of the world; and mindful that the acquisition of wealth is praiseworthy only insofar as it is attained through just means and expended for benevolent purposes, for the promotion of knowledge and toward the common good. The qualities you should cultivate include modesty, purity, temperance, decency, and clean-mindedness. In this way, you can prepare yourselves to shoulder the tremendous responsibilities that await you.126 While all this seems ambitious, it is within your reach if you are prepared to make the effort.

As you consider your place in the economy and look for work, you should distance yourself from the atmosphere of greed that surrounds you. You should consider the difference between gaining wealth through earnest effort in fields such as agriculture, commerce, the arts, and industry, on the one hand, and, on the other, obtaining it without exertion or through dishonest means. What would be the consequences of each for your spiritual development, as well as the progress of society? What possibilities exist for you to generate income and acquire wealth that will ensure your true happiness both in this world and in the next? The goal should be the development of your spiritual qualities, such as honesty, trustworthiness, generosity, justice, and consideration for others, and the recognition that material means are to be expended for the betterment of the world.127


 

 

Including hope in your vision of the future

Having gotten your own life in order and your priorities set, you need to focus on positive visions of the future, to see beyond the mess we are in today. From a systems perspective, the potential of the future is so great that you cannot imagine what it might hold. However, you can identify the ethical principles that produce social cohesion, and the processes of civilization building that should be encouraged. Most importantly, you can concentrate on the efforts that you can undertake now to experiment with new forms of social organization, new processes of wealth creation, and new approaches to environmental sustainability, as building blocks for a new civilization.

You need to overcome the false divide between science and religion, and learn from religion the motivation to sacrifice in the short term for long term benefits. Motivating change means reaching people's hearts as well as their minds, challenging their assumptions, and empowering them to be open to change and to work together for the betterment of their communities and society.

Since negative messages do not work, you need a narrative of positive change and cooperation in a common cause building on a spectrum of approaches, activating cooperative values rather than competitive values, and stressing what we all have in common. You should relate solutions to each problem to the sources of happiness and the connections that we feel with others, creating communities of shared conviction. As you build your vision of the future, you can see transformation as a journey of conviction and informed choice between desirable and catastrophic outcomes, based on the nonnegotiable sacred values.

In sharing this vision with others, you need to create trust, and be emotionally honest in talking about your hopes, fears and anxieties with moral consistency, recognizing your own role in the problems, and affirming wider values across all the divisions between people. You should recognize people's feelings of grief and anxiety, mourn what is lost and value what remains. Acceptance, compassion, cooperation and empathy will produce very different outcomes than aggression, competition, blame and denial.128

This vision motivating positive change can show what the results of difficult efforts and short-term sacrifices can lead to. The gloomy, if not apocalyptic, environmental scenarios can be counterbalanced by visions of their role in the transition to a more peaceful world. You can envision a unified society that will be able to repair the damage and to continue the onward march of civilization. An athlete supports endless hours of training and the often painful pushing of bodily limits, motivated by the ultimate satisfaction of winning, or at least of a race well run.

You can see now that environmental, economic and social catastrophe may represent a realistic probability in the short term, as it looks unlikely that our leaders will have the wisdom and courage to avoid it. Uniting before a common threat can be very beneficial in building a strong and resilient community, and we all face common threats on this planet as you have seen on your journey. Catastrophe is not only destructive, but forces a stronger spirit of cooperation.129 The trials and suffering of World War II provided the impetus for the creation of the United Nations and the European Union. It unfortunately always seems to take such extreme events to break out of old paradigms and take civilization another step forward. Therefore it is necessary to follow your story line or scenario of the future and be an example for others of responsible citizenship and consumption to counteract the negative scenarios that may play out. You can become part of the constructive process of building a new global society on the other side of the catastrophe.

Furthermore, in such insecure times, with rising fear and mistrust, there is a natural tendency to want to return to the safety of old values and old ways of living, producing the driving force for the rise of fundamentalisms in many parts of the world, with accompanying intolerance, xenophobia and even terrorism. In visions of world citizenship and responsible consumption, you need to offer a positive alternative, not looking to the past but to the future.

Global change is just one of the processes forcing us to recognize the reality of the oneness of humankind and our responsibility to make it happen. Globalization is opening up vast new potentials for the advancement of human civilization, and many of our present difficulties are in fact the growing pains of the necessary transition.

You can have your own vision of possible sustainable societies that can result from implementing ethical values. You can be one of the forward-looking generation of young people imagining your own ideal future and taking responsibility for your own life, creating in your mind and heart a goal worth sacrificing for. Your new generation of responsible consumers should not just be passively choosing what to buy from among what society offers, but actively preparing yourselves to contribute in some way to the society you would like to live in. An ethical component in all forms of education can inspire you to become ethical leaders in your family, school, community, business, associations or governments. The positive force of ethical and spiritual commitment is the best motor for constructive change.


 

 

Scenarios of the Future

One of the advantages of scenarios or story lines for the future is that they are not constraining. They describe possible futures extrapolated from a certain number of defining conditions and assumptions. They can warn you about things you should not do, and suggest possible ways forward. If you do not like the kinds of futures some scenarios suggest, you are perfectly free to choose something else and make it happen. While you cannot directly affect processes in nature, like the sea level rise already under way with global warming, you have much more control over what people and human institutions do. As the old expression goes "we have found the enemy, and it is us". Furthermore, there is a natural process of change built into human life; the old people who often obstruct change will die off, and your generation will inevitably take over.

Below you will find visions of elements of the future from some of the peaks surrounding this valley. They take as a starting point the kind of human transformation described in the seven valleys of this metaphorical journey. As you join increasing numbers of people setting out on this voyage, many of the barriers that prevent humanity from fulfilling its true potential will recede. These glimpses of the possible future are compatible with the latest science, and suggest where that science can take us as we reach human maturity and leave behind the selfish and often violent practices of our collective adolescence.

Systems, knowledge and values

The United Nations Sustainable Development Goals already call for a systems perspective in which these ambitious goals are integrated and inseparable and must be achieved together. This will require new ways of structuring our institutions of governance, our academic disciplines, and our economic and social structures. To be considered wise and learned in this new world will mean mastering all the major fields of knowledge, the sciences and arts, and the essentials of religion and civilization, avoiding the traps of narrow specializations. Such knowledge will be accompanied by spiritual values of humility and service.

The Environment

While for too long we have taken our planet and its natural abundance for granted, it is in fact an amazing example, and the only one we know of, where life has evolved to generate an unbelievable diversity of microbes, plants and animals, including us. At the moment we are rapidly destroying these beautifully balanced biological systems, but once we reconcile ourselves with nature, we shall be able to restore much of the planet's productive capacity, rebuilding soils, recreating beautiful and productive landscapes, and designing urban forest ecosystems in which we are fully integrated to produce the raw materials we need and to absorb our wastes in an organic unity. Agriculture, evolving far beyond the industrial monocultures of the moment, and other renewable resources, will become the foundation of a sustainable society. As our knowledge of designing ecosystems advances, we may be able to raise the carrying capacity of the planet so that more people can benefit from our ever-advancing civilization.

Social justice

A united human race in all its diversity is now technically possible, as information and communications technologies have eliminated all barriers to world intercommunication. What we need is the social transformation to allow us to benefit from this new potential and to appreciate our diversity. The positive recognition of all those things that unite us will allow us to overcome national rivalries and hatreds, racial prejudice and religious strife. The nations of the world will agree on a world language and script to be taught in all the schools as an auxiliary to national languages, allowing a world literature and culture to emerge. The two great knowledge systems of science and religion, such potent forces in human life, will be reconciled and advance together. An independent press will express the diversified views and convictions of all of humanity.

We shall explore the optimal sizes of human communities for building strong social relationships, with a central house of worship as the spiritual heart of the community, surrounded by institutions of education and social welfare. Partisan politics will be abandoned in favour of consultative institutions of governance elected without nominations or campaigning, whose only interest will be in serving the community.

Economy

The new world economy will uphold social justice, be altruistic and cooperative, create meaningful employment for all, and eliminate poverty in the world. It will be managed at the global level to ensure that the planet's economic resources are organized, its raw materials are tapped and fully and responsibly utilized, its markets are coordinated and developed, and its products distributed equitably. A single world currency will allow economic barriers and restrictions to be abolished. Destitution and gross accumulation of ownership will disappear, and class distinctions will be removed. The end of economic and political warfare will allow resources to be directed to scientific research, new inventions and technical development; to increased productivity; to eliminating disease, improving physical health and extending human life; to refining the human brain; to the exploitation of all the planet's resources and sources of energy; and to stimulate the intellectual, moral, and spiritual life of the entire human race.130 An early priority will be to restore the enviroment and productive capacity of the planet from the damage we are causing now.

Each Individual

Starting from the premise that our human purpose is to profit from this life to develop spiritually, to refine our character and to contribute to an ever-advancing civilization, you can imagine how different each individual life will be in this vision of the future. There will still be the universal challenges associated with the stages of life, from childhood, adolescence, adulthood, the decline in old age, and ultimately death. But imagine how different it can be when infants are born into a loving family, and every effort in the home, school and community helps each child discover the special gems within her or him, and when training is provided for everyone to cultivate skills of service to the society and employment is guaranteed since work is a spiritual obligation.

Education will be life-long, to help everyone cultivate all the talents and abilities they possess, and no one will be left behind. There will be no need for "retirement" since opportunities for service will be adapted to each person's interests and capacities as they evolve through life. One could imagine a much more varied and balanced life, with time divided between work in agriculture or food production, technology or manufacturing, arts and crafts, education or health services, administration and social contributions. While there would obviously still be specializations, we could leave behind rigid careers designed only to serve the economy rather than the fulfilment of the individual.

Community

All of these elements together can become the foundations for a spiritual civilization, in which material progress enables the endless unfolding of the potentials of human consciousness. This is the real fruit of the unity of the human race, as our evolutionary progression opens the door to unimaginably rich social relationships and a blossoming of spiritual qualities in everyone. Bahá'u'lláh laid out this vision of the future in the nineteenth century, and it is gradually unfolding, carried increasingly by young people like you. This is not just an imaginary utopia. The Bahá'í community is a learning community that does not have all the answers, but a set of spiritual principles that can help any community to find the answers to its problems and challenges. This is a reality that combines science and religion, the material and spiritual, with each reinforcing the other. It is intellectually coherent and emotionally satisfying.


 

 

Planetary vision

The unity of the human race will require a world commonwealth and federal system uniting all nations and peoples, while preserving state autonomy and the personal freedom and initiative of every individual. A world legislature, as the trustees of all of humanity, will control the resources of all the nations, and make the laws necessary to regulate the life, satisfy the needs and adjust the relationships of all races and peoples. A world executive, with the support of an international force, will apply the laws and safeguard the organic unity of the whole commonwealth. A world tribunal will settle all disputes that may arise within this universal system. This system, blending and embodying the ideals of East and West, liberated from war, with force made the servant of justice, unified materially and spiritually, is the goal of an emerging world civilization.131


 

 

Conclusions

You have now emerged from the seventh valley and can choose the peak to climb that best suits your interests, talents and circumstances. While this metaphorical journey is coming to an end, you still have your real lifetime journey ahead. You are now armed for the constructive conquest of the planet. You can set out with a spirit of selfless service to work for the transformation of society, applying justice wherever you can. You can rise above the confusion and hopelessness of so many of your fellow youth.

As a youth today, the future is in your hands. You can adopt new values and lifestyles, and new forms of social organization. Where the institutions of society have become dysfunctional with changing conditions in a globalized world, there is nothing except inertia to prevent you from replacing them with something better. The evolution of world society now requires a fundamental shift in perspective concerning the purpose of life, the nature of progress, and the meaning of true happiness and well-being as you have discovered on this journey. History is full of such transformations. Humanity is not forced to live forever with absolute national sovereignty, the unregulated neoliberal economy or the multinational corporation pursuing profit above all else. In the past, such transformations were brought about by war or revolution, and those options are still available. The real challenge for you today is to ask if there are more civilized alternatives that do not require the recourse to violence and all the human suffering that accompanies it.

One thing that will give you hope is the new potential of information and communications technologies. Never before has it been possible for anyone, particularly your generation, to access so much knowledge and wisdom, to network and exchange at scales unimaginable even a few decades ago, and to organize and respond rapidly at unheard-of speeds. Previous transformations in human society were generally led by wise old men, establishing such innovations as the United Nations and the European Union. It is no longer necessary to wait for such leaders. Wisdom is available to anyone who looks for it. A new potential for positive change is opening up, and the challenge for you and all the youth today is to prepare yourselves to grab this potential and run with it. As the Secretary-General of the United Nations has put it: "young people will be the torch bearers... the first truly globalized, interconnected, and highly mobilized civil society, ready and able to serve as a participant, joint steward, and powerful engine of change and transformation."132

Starting in your local community

You have been through valleys of difficulties and challenges and climbed mountains of possibilities, but do not think that you have to go so far to take action. The best place to start to build a better world is in your own community. Invite others to come along with you, and offer to accompany them on this journey that is both material and spiritual, finding local solutions to real problems, and building in your community the capacity to take charge of its own improvement. The Baha'is have developed some excellent training materials prepared by the Ruhi Institute in Colombia and now used around the world in study circles, in case you want to learn how to teach children's classes in moral education, or animate groups of pre-adolescent youth for service activities, as well as to advance in your own spiritual development. You can also hold devotional meetings where community members of all faiths and no faith can share some spiritual time together, and build a deep sense of unity in the community. This approach is being used successfully all around the world in communities with many cultures, with people of all faith traditions, from remote tribal villages to the great cities, among rich and poor, across all the generations. You can probably find one near you.

You have armed yourself with a systems perspective that can help you to understand complex problems, and a set of values to guide you through life. You now understand the roots of the environmental crisis and the solutions available. You have seen the importance of justice in addressing social problems, and have the tools to launch yourself in social action. You are convinced of the need to transform a failing economic system, and the steps you can take to start building an alternative from the bottom up. You have started on a life-long process of individual transformation in a spirit of humble learning. You appreciate the challenges associated with advancing your physical, intellectual and spiritual realities, learning to turn positively to the unknown in yourself, in others, in the natural world, and reaching towards the unknowable essence of absolute perfection that can inspire you to ever greater efforts in a path of service. And you have a clearer vision of the possible futures stretching out before you, and the steps you can take to bring them a little closer. You are now full of hope, ready to face whatever challenges life may throw your way.

Traversing these seven valleys has equipped you with the essentials that you need to act, so you have no excuse to wait any longer. Arise and serve!


 

 


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NOTES AND REFERENCES

119. Turchin, Peter. 2010. Political instability may be a contributor in the coming decade. Nature, vol. 463, p. 608 (4 February 2010). doi:10.1038/463608a.

120. Turchin, Peter. 2010. Political instability may be a contributor in the coming decade. Nature, vol. 463, p. 608 (4 February 2010). doi:10.1038/463608a.

121. Universal House of Justice. 2010. To the believers in the Cradle of the Faith, 2 April 2010. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

122. Paraphrase from Universal House of Justice. 2010. To the believers in the Cradle of the Faith, 2 April 2010. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

123. Paraphrase from Universal House of Justice. 2010. To the Conference of the Continental Boards of Counsellors, 28 December 2010. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

124. Inspired by Universal House of Justice. 2013. To the Baha'is of the World, 8 February 2013, §2. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

125. Paraphrase from Universal House of Justice. 2013. To the Baha'is of the World, 8 February 2013, §4. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

126. Paraphrase from Universal House of Justice. 2010. To the believers in the Cradle of the Faith, 2 April 2010. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

127. Paraphrase from Universal House of Justice. 2010. To the believers in the Cradle of the Faith, 2 April 2010. Bahá'í World Centre, Haifa.

128. Marshall, George. 2014. Don't Even Think About It: Why Our Brains are Wired to Ignore Climate Change. London and New York: Bloomsbury.

129. Turchin, Peter. 2016. Ultra society: How 10,000 Years of War Made Humans the Greatest Cooperators on Earth. Chaplin, Connecticut: Beresta Books.

130. After Shoghi Effendi (1938). The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 203-204. Wilmette, Illinois, Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

131. After Shoghi Effendi (1938). The World Order of Bahá'u'lláh, p. 203-204. Wilmette, Illinois, Bahá'í Publishing Trust.

132. United Nations. 2014. The Road to Dignity by 2030: Ending Poverty, Transforming All Lives and Protecting the Planet, Synthesis Report of the Secretary-General on the Post-2015 Agenda. Document A/69/700, 4 December 2014. New York: United Nations. http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/69/700&Lang=E


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